Dry goods! Classification and use of insulators
Insulators can be divided into high voltage insulators and low voltage insulators according to the use of voltage. Insulators can be divided into porcelain insulators, glass insulators and organic materials (epoxy resin cast) insulators by manufacturing materials. Insulators can be divided into indoor insulators and outdoor insulators according to their installation sites. Insulators can be divided into 11 sub-categories and 48 series according to their structure and use.
Classification of Insulators
Insulators can be divided into high voltage insulators and low voltage insulators according to the use of voltage.
Insulators can be divided into porcelain insulators, glass insulators and organic materials (epoxy resin cast) insulators by manufacturing materials.
Insulators can be divided into indoor insulators and outdoor insulators according to their installation sites.
Insulators can be divided into 11 sub-categories and 48 series according to their structure and use.
Main use of insulators
1) High voltage line insulators
① High-voltage line rigid insulators: including pin porcelain insulators, porcelain cross arm insulators and butterfly porcelain insulators.
Porcelain cross arm insulators for high-voltage lines can be divided into four types: all-ceramic, glued, single-arm and V-shaped. According to the installation form, it can be divided into vertical and horizontal types. According to 50% full-wave impulse flashover voltage, it can be divided into 185kV, 2lOkV, 280kV, 380kV, 450kV, 6lOkV and other grades. Used for high-voltage overhead transmission and distribution lines, can replace needle and suspension insulators, and save the high rod porcelain load.
Butterfly type porcelain insulator of high voltage line is divided into two levels of 6kV and lOkV according to rated voltage.
Used for overhead transmission and distribution line terminals, tension and corner poles as insulation and fixed conductors. At the same time, it is also widely used as a match with the line suspension insulator, as a component in the line fittings, to simplify the structure of the fittings.
② High-voltage line suspension insulators: including disc-shaped suspension porcelain insulators, disc-shaped suspension glass insulators, porcelain pull-rod insulators and ground wire insulators.
High-voltage line disc suspension porcelain insulators are divided into two types: ordinary type and stain-resistant type. Used for high-voltage and ultra-high-voltage transmission lines to suspend or tension conductors and insulate them from tower poles. Suspension insulator electromechanical high strength, through different string group can be applied to a variety of voltage levels, suitable for a variety of strength needs, the most widely used. The ordinary type is suitable for general industrial areas. Compared with ordinary insulators, the pollution-resistant type has a larger creepage distance and a shape that is convenient for wind and rain cleaning, and is suitable for coastal, metallurgical powder, chemical pollution and more serious industrial pollution areas. When the anti-pollution insulator is used in the above areas, it can reduce the size of the tower and has great economic value.
High-voltage line disk suspension glass insulators and high-voltage line disk suspension porcelain insulators use basically the same. Glass insulators have the characteristics of high mechanical strength, mechanical impact resistance, good cold and hot performance, long life, excellent electrical performance and lightning resistance, and when the operation is damaged, the umbrella disc is automatically broken, which is easy to find and greatly reduces the workload of insulation detection.
High-voltage line porcelain pull-rod insulators are used on terminal tension and corner poles on overhead power lines of lOkV and below to insulate and fix conductors. It can replace some butterfly porcelain insulators and disc-shaped suspension porcelain insulators.
③ Rod-type porcelain insulators for electrified railway catenary
2) Low-voltage line insulators
① Low-voltage line pin-type, butterfly-type and shaft-type porcelain insulators: low-voltage line pin-type porcelain insulators are used for insulation and fixed conductors in overhead power lines below 1kV. Butterfly porcelain insulators for low-voltage lines are used for insulating and fixing conductors on distribution line terminals, tension and corner poles. Low-voltage line shaft-type porcelain insulators are used for insulating and fixing conductors on power distribution line terminals, tension and corner poles.
② Overhead line tension porcelain insulator: used for AC and DC overhead transmission and distribution lines and communication line terminal corner or large span pole, balance pole tension, for tension insulation and connection.
③ insulators for tram lines: used as insulation and tensioning conductors for tram lines or as insulation and supports for conductive parts on trams and power stations.
④ Communication line pin type porcelain insulator: used for insulation and fixed conductor in overhead communication line.
⑤ Insulators for wiring: including drum insulators, porcelain splints and porcelain tubes. For low voltage wiring.
3) High voltage power station insulators
High-voltage indoor post insulator for power station: used for electrical equipment bus and distribution device of indoor power station and substation with rated voltage of 6-35kV. As an insulating support for high voltage conductive parts. It is generally installed at an altitude of not more than 1000m, the ambient temperature is -40~40 ℃, and should be used under the condition of no pollution and condensation. The specially designed plateau can be used at an altitude of 3000m and 5000m.
② outdoor pin post insulator: suitable for AC rated voltage of 3-220kV, installation site ambient temperature of -40~40 ℃ and altitude of not more than 1000m electrical insulation part or power distribution device, for insulation and fixed conductor.
③ outdoor rod post insulator: used for high-voltage electrical appliances and high-voltage power distribution equipment, insulation and fixed conductor. Has replaced the use of outdoor pin post insulators.
④ antifouling type outdoor rod post insulator: suitable for salt density within 0.1mg/cm2 of the medium pollution area, as high voltage electrical appliances and power distribution equipment insulation and fixed role.
⑤ High-voltage wall bushing: including indoor wall bushing, outdoor wall bushing, busbar wall bushing and oil-paper capacitive wall bushing.
⑥ Electrical porcelain sleeve: including transformer porcelain sleeve, switch porcelain sleeve and transformer porcelain sleeve.
Transformer porcelain sleeve includes power transformer and test transformer bushing porcelain sleeve and pillar porcelain sleeve two categories.
Switch porcelain sets include multi-oil circuit breaker porcelain sets, less oil circuit breaker porcelain sets, load switch porcelain sets, explosion-proof switch porcelain sets, isolating switch porcelain sets, air circuit breaker porcelain sets, etc. It is mainly used as the insulation of the high-voltage lead wire of the switch to the ground and the container for the insulation and internal insulation of the circuit breaker.
The transformer porcelain sleeve is used as an insulating element for current transformers and voltage transformers.